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Green infrastructure describes natural resource management interventions that use vegetation, soils, and natural processes to manage water and create healthier environments.
The “urban heat island effect” (UHIE) describes the phenomena where temperatures in densely populated cities can be significantly higher than in surrounding areas.
The landscape of urban open spaces can range from playing fields to highly maintained environments to relatively natural landscapes. Urban open spaces can be well protected due to conservation status, but unprotected areas may especially be at risk due to development pressures. As dense population centers, urban areas have opportunities to embrace “smart growth” to balance development needs with important ecological, economic, and social benefits of open spaces.