The USDA’s Effects of Climate Variability and Change on Forest Ecosystems report focuses on the effects of changing climate conditions on forest ecosystems. Climate change is expected to affect everything from disturbance regimes to forest process. Fire events, insect and pathogen infestations, invasive species, and shifts in precipitation are expected to present significant challenges for forest lands. While this report discusses such challenges primarily in terms of rural forests, urban forests ecosystems are also mentioned. Climate variability, its impacts, risk management strategies, and case studies are discussed by region.